Automobile și vehicule

The Surprising Science Behind Tread Patterns

Thanks to Keeps for sponsoring today’s video. Click here to get 50% off your first order of Keeps hair loss treatment.

It’s 2021, and we’ve come a long way since Carl Benz patented the first car in 1885. Teslas can hit 60 in just 2s, F1 drivers experience more Gs than an astronaut, and there are road cars - plural - that can go 300 mph. None of those amazing feats would be possible without the one part that actually touches the road: tires. Today, we’re going to figure out the secrets behind tires’ grip, why there’s so much variation in what seems like a pretty simple design.

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Comentarii: 3 357 

  1. Robert Webber

    Robert Webber

    Acum o Zi

    Isn't it Tyre? Instead of Tire?? Nope, just only now realised us Brits spells it differently than the USA.

  2. kary lemay

    kary lemay

    Acum o Zi

    How come y’all didn’t spell tyre properly?

  3. willyolio


    Acum o Zi

    fictional force equation is highly simplified and idealized. It assumes the 2 surfaces are perfectly smooth and in perfect contact with each other, and are perfectly rigid (no flexing). Once that stuff needs to be taken into account, a ton of other variables start to matter (e.g. tire area, tire pressure, grooves/tread patterns...) It's the same as high school physics where everything is massless, frictionless, 100% efficient, and aerodynamic drag doesn't exist until the question says so.

  4. Revn STI

    Revn STI

    Acum o Zi

    I’m over here driving max performance summer tires in the snow



    Acum 2 Zile

    Whoa, When I was working at Goodyear Corporate, I was the Manager of that Exact Store!! At least I think it's the same store??... I Worked at the GoodYear Store, In GoodYear, Arizona.... on Litchfield Rd. It was the 1st GoodYear Tire Store Opened.



    Acum 2 Zile

    Shit I Coulda Not Gone to U.T.I, Saved my Money and Just Watched This! Awesome Video 👍

  7. Bora Yurtoren

    Bora Yurtoren

    Acum 3 Zile

    Vulcan is not on Star Wars, it is Star Trek. Confusing these is very frowned upon, may even result in public humiliation.

  8. Daniel Medveczky

    Daniel Medveczky

    Acum 3 Zile

    Thanks Jerry, the same question you said in the end I had in my mind the whole video. I love your videos

  9. trm4life


    Acum 3 Zile

    Realistically, buy the tires you need. I have 2 Michelin cross climate tires I put on my car in the winter,(btw they are amazing for a snow rated touring tire, and kick ass in the rain!)and I am still trying out different ebay specials for summer tires. I get 2 "Z" rated tires for about 160$, but the cross climate were in the 260 to 300$ / pair range, and that was online.

  10. ChadCuzBad


    Acum 4 Zile

    Wider tires = more surface area of the wheel total that can possibly make contact, there would be a lot more rubber to fill in more grooves meaning the surface would be considered rougher than before, increasing friction since a smoother surface would decrease friction

  11. ChadCuzBad


    Acum 4 Zile


  12. Serious Andy

    Serious Andy

    Acum 5 Zile

    I am a dummy pants

  13. Robert Clopein

    Robert Clopein

    Acum 5 Zile

    I hate the stupid Nolan commercials

  14. Little Lizard Rides

    Little Lizard Rides

    Acum 6 Zile

    Easy, Tyre load sensitivity.

  15. Robert Britt

    Robert Britt

    Acum 6 Zile

    It's easier to maintain a slide than it is to start a slide. It requires more force to start a slide.

  16. Robert Britt

    Robert Britt

    Acum 6 Zile

    In a burnout every piece of tire you tear up and throw back push you forward with the same force required. No such thing as a burnout that is stationary without breaks

  17. Robert Britt

    Robert Britt

    Acum 6 Zile

    300mph cars?

  18. Jens Christian Rædkjær

    Jens Christian Rædkjær

    Acum 7 Zile

    Tyre 👍 Tire 👎

  19. Robert Mccallum

    Robert Mccallum

    Acum 7 Zile

    I tried the "v" pattern and i found that if you turn at the same angle as the "v" the tyre would walk sideways creating understeer. Just my 2 cents worth. as for the challenge, there is to many extra variables not calculated and the formula is a good explanation of how, not what, it works

  20. Sourish Senapati

    Sourish Senapati

    Acum 7 Zile

    ans = it is for more stability {handling}

  21. Morgan jones

    Morgan jones

    Acum 8 Zile

    Because the wider tire has more surface area for more contact surface

  22. W B

    W B

    Acum 9 Zile

    I worked on tires in the early 80s. We had a lot of radial tires that would separate (steel belt separation) caused by changing the rotation of the tires when they were rotated.

  23. Nate Bell

    Nate Bell

    Acum 9 Zile

    South Philly babby!!

  24. FNG Works

    FNG Works

    Acum 10 Zile

    But why on motorcycles, the front tyre V direction are reversed?

  25. Macca46


    Acum 11 Zile

    Nice chicken strips on the bike tyre XD

  26. Roman Thinks

    Roman Thinks

    Acum 12 Zile

    Ive had this exact contact patch discussion with my physics teacher (im a plastics technician) and his answer was basically: you ar absolutley right, the thing is, if you want to know the exact friction between two objects, you have to look at so many factors that one calculation can easily fill a book, so alot of things get just left out for the sake of simplicity, and anyway in 99.9 percent of cases, this calculated approximation is good enough.

  27. Marc Lappin

    Marc Lappin

    Acum 12 Zile

    The thicker the TYRE the more smoke BABEH!! and i agree with Ben the actual TYRE engineer, but did i miss something thou I always like a good lipped/thicker side wall I think this is very important just as important with lower profile TYRES 1.Prevention of Girlfriend damaging your alloy wheel on the curb 2.Looks good having that extra rubber meeting the edge rim of the wheel 3.normally they seem to be or look stronger in budget TYRES having a more square style instead of a balloon why was there a white rim on old vintage TYRE sidewall coz it made it look better of course to break up the masses of black natural rubber on show, and something long ago about zinc oxide making the TYRE last longer when that was classed as useful, it then stuck around for a few decades due to vintage TYRES having a profile of 70 or even 80, these nearly come of the wheel going around corners any faster then 30MPH Laurel and Hardy demonstrate this! actually they demonstrate what its like not having sidewalls rubber strip around a wagon wheel but of course the higher the profile the smoother the ride over bumps when the suspension isn't up to scratch 4.better cornering which should've been 1st on the list, granted!! 5.oh they look good/better/sexier/newer/look more expensive yep i repeated myself coz its important part of the TYRES structure! always wondered what was after and before the tread ribs ;-) my sweet spot seem to be 50 profile for overall usefulness and variable abilities also will look after your wheels love the show do i get a T-Shirt LOL

  28. Somak Aditya

    Somak Aditya

    Acum 12 Zile

    The width of the tyre is directly proportional to grip because tyres are non-rigid bodies. And f= cN is equation for Rigid bodies.

  29. Archie Redman

    Archie Redman

    Acum 12 Zile

    Charles Goodyear did not make his discovery while in prison.

  30. Mr. Yvi

    Mr. Yvi

    Acum 13 Zile

    Because a drag racing car has more power baby's than a regular road car so they need more contact gripping the road to deliver the power from the wheels to the road

  31. Anton Egorov

    Anton Egorov

    Acum 13 Zile

    Hi Donut, formula you've mentioned works for flat surfaces, but tire-road contact isn't flat you see. More surface - more bumps and humps under the thread pattern - more grip.

  32. John Coops

    John Coops

    Acum 14 Zile

    This channel would be SO much better without the cringeworthy announcer, terrible attempts at humour, stupid interjections, dumb advertising and all the other rubbish. Of course, then the video would just be factual and take about 1/3 the amount of the viewer's time.

  33. Andy Taylor

    Andy Taylor

    Acum 15 Zile

    "yes". You son of a bitch, I'm in.

  34. Marcos Sanches

    Marcos Sanches

    Acum 15 Zile

    You should see how much the tires on aircraft costs. And boy, they wear a lot faster than your average car tire.

  35. shazam Barley

    shazam Barley

    Acum 16 Zile

    That 'WHY' is just amaziiiinnnngggg

  36. Arijit Sarkar

    Arijit Sarkar

    Acum 16 Zile

    With wider tires, there will be more grip thus increasing friction (better to say traction) with Asphalt and increasing more acceleration.

  37. Ryan Eccker

    Ryan Eccker

    Acum 16 Zile

    s/o to this channel. i’ve never been all that into cars, but you guys make it so easy to understand & it’s so enjoyable

  38. Apexseals


    Acum 16 Zile

    friction also depends on pressure applied between both surfaces. if you have little/no pressure between them, friction decreases. which is why throwing the biggest, widest tires on any car is a terrible idea. it decreases pressure applied and you decrease friction.

  39. Russ G

    Russ G

    Acum 17 Zile

    Did he say Vulcanization is Star Wars? 🤦🏻‍♂️

  40. Ben Chrysler

    Ben Chrysler

    Acum 17 Zile

    The answer is blowing in the wind…

  41. dankwheats24


    Acum 17 Zile

    Ass fault

  42. SpiritZweiSpirit1st


    Acum 17 Zile

    Not even 7 minutes in' Ive learned more about tryrse then I ever new (an i like tyrers!) _ and You Hard Core Gents are Phunnny!😏 Thank You! Your Awesome! i Wuv u man'

  43. redline


    Acum 18 Zile

    James: WHY

  44. RickOAA


    Acum 18 Zile

    The part about mall crawlers got me 😄

  45. Ian Holmes

    Ian Holmes

    Acum 18 Zile

    I used to work in a tire shop and there is a staggering amount of people who drop half their salary on a C300 or 3-Series yet drive on 4 mismatched Chinese bootleg tires. They bought luxury sports sedans yet refused to spend money on a proper set of tires. People thought we were bullshitting them when we explained that no it’s not safe to drive on… -bald tires -mismatched treads -tires that were over a decade old -cracked tires Meanwhile they want the status symbol of a German car without paying for basic necessities, and end up having it drive like a 2004 Corolla with over 300,000 km

  46. Dream


    Acum 19 Zile

    It's basically because the wider beefier tires can stick to the track better. There are also people in my country that use huge tires that look like balloons... These are useful because when they take off, the tires warp to the shape of the road and will get into every single peak and nooks on the road which will maximize grip... Like on f1 cars when the tires barely last

  47. Mishuk Ehsan

    Mishuk Ehsan

    Acum 19 Zile

    Grandma and prison joke was lame.

  48. Eric Gurganious

    Eric Gurganious

    Acum 20 Zile

    Larger contact patches

  49. Jordan Butler

    Jordan Butler

    Acum 20 Zile

    What grandma do😭

  50. Phillip Salazar

    Phillip Salazar

    Acum 20 Zile

    Very informative but my wife has epilepsy and it’s not fun to watch jer

  51. Conner Bjork

    Conner Bjork

    Acum 20 Zile

    Bring back #sciencegarage

  52. Tried like Silver

    Tried like Silver

    Acum 20 Zile

    Love the videos guys, I'm definitely learning a lot. Have you guys done a video about why the auto industry now recommends rotating your better tires to the back?

  53. Matthew Vitkovitsky

    Matthew Vitkovitsky

    Acum 20 Zile

    Mo Surface area= mo powr baby p.o box d.p hagatna guam 96932

  54. Supertramp


    Acum 21 o Zi

    Wider, fatter, tires would have more rotational force, because they are heavier. Then your tires begin to look like the tires of a funny car in a burnout. Since the tire would balloon, you would have less tire touching the road, resulting in less traction, not more. I'm viewing this video late, so I'm sure this had been answered a thousand times already. But, that's my answer and I'm sticking to it. Peace out...

  55. Chriskmeg


    Acum 21 o Zi

    My dad taught me about tires and suspension. This is a throwback for me!!

  56. Stanley Mamootil

    Stanley Mamootil

    Acum 21 o Zi

    Where do you source your music and sfx from?

  57. Cash Humphrey

    Cash Humphrey

    Acum 21 o Zi

    Being on the technology side of the stem field my assumption could be wrong but here we go.... I think the first thing to note it the bigger tires for drag cars often are on the rear wheels. This is also where the torque and power are going. Just like if you are going to make a jump forward you while standing in place. There is more then just a need to jump upward you also have the need to grip with your feet and push yourself forward. As you can probably imagine if there is not proper grip to your feet you will just slip. giving yourself the proper amount of grip for that forwards thrust or "Push" Like a football player might do you are able to more productively move in a forward motion even though you are technically pushing your feet against the ground and or backwards. When someone who is skiing does this they use sticks a drag racer would use wider back tires or (car feet) if you will?

  58. Hayden Word

    Hayden Word

    Acum 21 o Zi

    Gravity is proportional to normal force. More rubber=more weight. More weight=more gravitational force. More gravity=more normal force. More normal force=more friction!

  59. Fanwood Watcher

    Fanwood Watcher

    Acum 21 o Zi

    The governing parameter is force (push or pull) over distance (work) per unit time- power, "horsepower", applied through inflated elastic/ viscous wheel surfaces engaging loosely defined paved surfaces by rolling on them under erratic pressure with frictional shear in every direction. like Reynold's number, pertinent to the Navier Stokes equations, we can regard much of this as dimensionless. More horses mean more hooves- if Hercules rows your boat, huge oars are required- sturdy and robust, not skinny and wimpy- hence tires must size the style of the power they transmit in quality and quantity- in this case, contact area, somewhat related to width divided by inflation pressure, and heat dissipation (entropy), within a given velocity envelope. Guessing game- why do tread patterns vary widely in the rolling module on a single (treaded) tire?

  60. Marko Walters-Gerout

    Marko Walters-Gerout

    Acum 22 Zile

    please answer this: The air inside the tire also can be different. My Father told me that nitrogen helps to prolong the life span of the tires. But he also send me to pump normal air in the tires. Why is that? I can't really rap my head around the fact that air also helps, but you can mix them. Please help

  61. Akash


    Acum 22 Zile

    He really said m*th*r f*ck*r talking about school sessions at 6:24

  62. KayVeeEye


    Acum 22 Zile

    I don't know if people tell you this a lot, but I really appreciate these informational videos you guys put out.

  63. Andres Acosta

    Andres Acosta

    Acum 22 Zile

    the more surface area offered by the wider tires helps disperse the force over a wider area, which means the wear on the rubber isnt as much. The tires dont wear as quickly and dont heat up as fast

  64. Alex Kurtz

    Alex Kurtz

    Acum 23 Zile

    Has anyone ever noticed that Jeremiah kinda looks like a young Tom DeLonge?

  65. Bairu Kaji

    Bairu Kaji

    Acum 23 Zile

    Frictional force has no surface area component - true, but, coefficient of friction is a function of traction area. (μ α Aⁿ)

  66. CreatureOTNight COTN

    CreatureOTNight COTN

    Acum 23 Zile

    Did he go Jajathecreep on Star Trek?

  67. CreatureOTNight COTN

    CreatureOTNight COTN

    Acum 23 Zile

    Savage it's spelt TYRE not TIRE.

  68. sam hope

    sam hope

    Acum 23 Zile

    Man I’d love donut to do a bumper to bumper on the Holden commonwhore including the VL. The Walkinshaw VL remains one of my favourite cars.

  69. Journey Wegley

    Journey Wegley

    Acum 23 Zile

    Contact pack more surface area more grip

  70. JR German

    JR German

    Acum 23 Zile

    Higher speed causes tires to egg up/get narrower at higher speed centrifugal force and they also use lower tire pressure for sidewall cracking effect it’s what I’ve learned from smarties I’m just a dump truck driver I just pick things up and put them down far away 🤪

  71. Dynoids


    Acum 24 Zile

    Damn, looks like no T-shirt for me. But anyway, the frictional force is just how much friction a point on the tire makes, you can have a tiny tire with the dame frictional coefficient as a giant wider tire. However, the bigger difference comes from the surface area of course. Not included in the equation because its not relevant. The more friction, the more the tire fits into and grabs the grooves in the road and holds on. The rubber has to have good wear though for good driving characteristics. The wear is important because thats a shear load being applied to the tire, and the more surface area you have the more shear force is required to shave another layer off. That force us what gives you your grip as a whole while driving, which depends on the frictional coefficient. Engineering is basically all just this, doo dad isnt part of the equation so how do the principals and equations relate to get the desired result, compared with real world testing.

  72. Aman Sharma

    Aman Sharma

    Acum 24 Zile

    Answer is better pickup

  73. Frisky Dingo

    Frisky Dingo

    Acum 24 Zile

    Is there a tire thats has soft enough tread, but more rigid sidewalls. More grip+less twist=more force.

    • PetrosMTB


      Acum 24 Zile

      More rigid sidewalls equals more weight therefore slower acceleration and poorer fuel economy, needed more for downhill mountain bikes and enduro dirtbikes but less for tarmac. But what do you think about this.. for high speed tarmac applications the centrifugal force is going to be incredibly greater than dirtbike/mtb and therefore they can get away with wider tires/lower pressures and softer side walls because the mass of tyre is being propelled towards the road the faster the tire is spinning?

  74. ebrahim alfardan

    ebrahim alfardan

    Acum 25 Zile

    There's two reasons why you want to maximize the tire contact patch: 1. Different parts of the tire have different linear velocities on the road when turning and the static contact point moves further towards the extremes as you turn harder while the rest of tire is slipping. Having wider tires means when you turn your contact patch will remain on the tires more so than on thinner tires. 2. It's not only the dynamic friction threshold that's your enemy, it's the integrity of the material itself. Sometimes you lose grip before reaching the threshold simply because the tires peel away. Distributing load on a wider surface makes sure that that doesn't happen so easily.

  75. Luca Barbaini

    Luca Barbaini

    Acum 25 Zile

    Using wider tires has two benefits. First one is that with more contact patch the force and the weight is distributed over a larger area and allows to use a softer compound. Softer rubber means a higher coefficient of friction that allows more grip and also it deforms better on the asphalt irregularities. Second and less obvious one it has to do with racing compounds. If you ever touched a racing car tire or a sportbike tire when warm you can see that it's sticky kinda like a bubble gum. This means that a wider tire has more sticky area. It's like stiking a 1kg weight to the ceiling or the wall with a small piece of tape or with a much wider tape. The wider can hold more weight.

  76. colinstu


    Acum 25 Zile

    11:36 Video's namesake starts here

  77. Blast Furnace

    Blast Furnace

    Acum 25 Zile

    the frictional force equation also doesn't have anything about pneumatic tyres in it, just solid materials. it's apllicable to tyres anyway.

  78. dakota bennett

    dakota bennett

    Acum 25 Zile

    Vulcan = Star wars lol it's funny because I can't tell if he's serious or not

  79. krASHExxx


    Acum 25 Zile

    Yep. Call star trek star wars... what an insult lmao. Was pretty funny though

  80. Jack Dunn

    Jack Dunn

    Acum 25 Zile

    Anyone else miss the old B2B where James would get an interesting car and go into detail about it from front to back. Love the series that Jeremiah does though!

    • dakota bennett

      dakota bennett

      Acum 25 Zile

      I want both

  81. Merto6


    Acum 25 Zile

    That coefficient x normal force is a simplification. The coefficient is slightly better when the normal force is smaller. So when you have bigger/wider/deflated tires you are spreading the load over more square inches and each individual square inch has a smaller normal force and slightly better coefficient of friction.

  82. Andy Blanchard

    Andy Blanchard

    Acum 25 Zile

    the friction between a tire and the road at extremes will actually shave rubber off of the tire instead of braking grip. a wider tire gives a bigger contact patch which meas more rubber to rip which means better grip. when the tire inst autographing asphalt normal rules apply.

  83. southpaww11


    Acum 25 Zile

    Can you make a video that helps explain tire sizes and what to do if you want to upgrade your tire from highway tires to larger all-terrain tires?

  84. STK Cepeda

    STK Cepeda

    Acum 25 Zile

    Answer: Cause the grip isn't a 1D formula. Tires are not a 1D object so there are more forces applying into them than only the FN. You also have to deal with gravity and weight with apply force towards the ground, have to deal with the FN which is the opposition of the movement you are applying at the moment. All of those forces have to be considered while analyzing grip behavior. The wider, bigger or heavier the tire, the greater the grip because there are stronger forces being applied.

  85. andreiaka3d


    Acum 25 Zile

    Answer to smart pants question: Because... they look good! :))

  86. geezyX 333

    geezyX 333

    Acum 25 Zile

    Imagine how rough the ride was when they were using steel wheels 😵‍💫

  87. Promrchief


    Acum 25 Zile

    The reason you want wide tires for drag races is that a wider surface area means that you are applying more force to the road than if you used a thinner tire.

  88. cdp0408


    Acum 25 Zile

    Love yals videos, watch them all the time, but just wanted to say on a directional tire you wouldn't have to rotate it 180 degrees to the other side you would just simply de mount re mount to the opposite side of the car in the same direction it was on the other side.

  89. Ed Dela Motte

    Ed Dela Motte

    Acum 25 Zile

    The tires are the things on your car that make contact with the road. The car is the thing on the road that takes you back to your abode. Bummed is what you are when you go out to your car and it's been towed. -Phish

  90. Deadpooligan


    Acum 25 Zile

    Vulcans are from Star Trek not Star Wars Jer!

  91. Joel Matte

    Joel Matte

    Acum 25 Zile

    15:31 That tire is actually asymmetrical.

  92. JTD


    Acum 25 Zile

    I'm going to say that the mass of an object (bigger tire) is part of calculating the 'N' here. In relation to your question at the end.

  93. Matt J

    Matt J

    Acum 26 Zile

    Bro, where did yu get that shirt?! Asking for a friend

  94. paul carroll

    paul carroll

    Acum 26 Zile

    rotational mass ? im no engineer , just field sales manager

  95. Ryan Douglas

    Ryan Douglas

    Acum 26 Zile

    Decreased air pressure. More surface area for grip. More twist in the tire that kind of acts like a sticky hand to launch the car forward with more force being applied to the ground.

  96. SomeShavedSheep


    Acum 26 Zile

    Why do drag racers run really wide slicks? I call it the Hoosier equation. w = BA

  97. Look_it's_wesley


    Acum 26 Zile

    its just more heat displacement

  98. Gary Lehman

    Gary Lehman

    Acum 26 Zile

    contact patch

  99. 800sexy


    Acum 26 Zile

    what happens if we put different treaded tires on each of the 4 wheels?

  100. Garry Miller

    Garry Miller

    Acum 26 Zile

    Bigger contact patch